Flow Chart of Glass Fiber Manufacturing Process

Glass Fibers:
Glass is a non-metallic fiber. It is also called fiberglass. Glass fibers are composed of oxides of silica. Glass is an inorganic nonmetallic material. Generally, the glass state is defined as the frozen state of a supercooled and thus a solidified liquid. It results from the suppression of the crystallization of a melt. Glass fiber has been widely used, mainly in the composite industry, for its cost-effectiveness and good performance.

glass fiber
Fig: Glass fiber

Silicate glass is composed of a network of the two components SiO2 and silicate. Depending on the composition, the diameter of the glass, and the implementation of additional components, A-glass, C-glass, D-glass, E-glass, ECR-glass, R-glass, and S-glass and some other special types are distinguished. A network modifier is a technical term for an atom that modifies the glass network and changes the glass properties. In general, textile glass fibers have a high tenacity at a low elongation combined with extremely low density.

The principle of glass fiber spinning is shown in below Fig, including steps of weighing, melting, spinning, finishing, and winding.

Principle of glass fiber spinning
Fig: Principle of glass fiber spinning

Flow Chart of Glass Fiber Manufacturing Process

Selected Silica is placed in the furnace and heated to 1370°C

Molten silica is placed in a Marble Forming Machine (15mm)

Visual inspection of glass for impurities

Marbles melted

Continuous Filament Process ←←→→ Staple Fibers Process


Continuous Filament Process

The molten glass flows through metal alloy spinnerets containing more than two hundred holes

A high-speed winder moves faster than the feed spinneret, which forces the fibers into a smaller diameter.

A temporary chemical binder applied to the fibers allows them to be twisted and wound, which reduces abrasion and breakages.

 The fibers are then twisted and plied to form yarns.

The binder is removed by volatizing it in an oven.

Curtains and draperies are created.


Staple Fibers Process

They are passed through a spinneret and into temperature-resistant bushes

 Jets of air ensure that thin, molten glass forms fine fibers (20–45 cm in length).

Fibers pass through a lubricant spray and drying flames before reaching a revolving drum.

There, they form a thin web.

After that, they are gathered into a sliver.

Eventually, they are spun into a yarn (similar to the cotton and wool processes).

Tapes, industrial fabrics and insulators are created.

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